Aquí os dejo una serie de términos relacionados con el jamón ibérico. Seguro que alguna vez habéis oído hablar de alguno de ellos y no sabéis exactamente que significan. Espero que esta información os resulte útil.


AÑADA DE JAMÓN:

Es el conjunto de jamones y paletas de cerdos ibéricos que fueron sacrificados durante la misma montanera. Cada añada tiene sus propias y diferenciadas características.

 

BODEGA:
Es el lugar con temperatura y humedad constante a lo largo del año, donde maduran los jamones y paletas de cerdo ibérico hasta su consumo.    

 

CALA:
Es el proceso a través del cual se descubren los exquisitos aromas de un jamón, además de servir de control de las posibles alteraciones internas. Se introduce en el jamón una especie de punzón, llamado también Cala , fabricado en hueso de caña de caballo o vaca. El extremo del mismo se impregna de los aromas que, una vez extraído del jamón, se perciben a través del olfato.

 

MONTANERA :
Es la fase de cebo en la que se aprovechan los recursos naturales de la dehesa. Para ello el cerdo ibérico come bellotas, hierbas y raíces. Suele comenzar a partir de octubre, coincidiendo con la caída de las primeras bellotas y termina a finales de febrero o principios de marzo. La piara de cerdos en montanera deberá estar dirigida por un porquero, con el fin de aprovechar mejor las bellotas. Al comienzo de la montanera se aprovechan las bellotas de los lugares más alejados y de difícil accesibilidad ya que los cerdos están más ágiles. Pese al exceso de grasa que producen los cerdos alimentados con bellotas, ésta confiere una alta calidad y cotización a sus productos. Esta característica se debe a la lenta pero paulatina incorporación de grasa infiltrada entre los músculos, que se ve favorecida con el ejercicio que desempeñan los cerdos al campear por la dehesa.

 

CALIDAD BELLOTA/RECEBO/CEBO :
Sistema de calificación de la calidad de los jamones y paletas de la Denominación de Origen Dehesa de Extremadura atendiendo a la alimentación del cerdo ibérico durante la fase de engorde en las dehesas. Bellota: el animal entra en montanera con 80/105 Kilos, reponiendo entorno al 60% de su peso de entrada a base de bellotas y hierbas. Recebo: el animal repone entorno al 30% de su peso de entrada a base de bellotas y hierbas, complementando el resto de su alimentación con piensos naturales autorizados por el Consejo Regulador. Campo: el animal se alimenta en régimen extensivo con piensos autorizados por el Consejo Regulador y pastos de la Dehesa.

 

CERDO IBÉRICO:
Cerdo autóctono del suroeste y del este de la Península Ibérica caracterizado por su excelente adaptación a la dehesa, por su capacidad de infiltrar grasa en el magro y por presentar unas extremidades muy finas y largas.  

 

BABILLA:
Es la parte del jamón que presenta menor cantidad de magro y que queda dispuesta para el corte cuando se coloca el jamón con la pezuña hacia abajo.  

 

JARRETE:
Es la parte del jamón localizada entre la tibia y el peroné que, una vez obtenida, se corta en taquitos para poder apreciar su jugosidad y sabor.

 

MAZA:
Parte del jamón iberico que presenta mayor cantidad de magro y que queda dispuesta para el corte cuando se coloca el jamón con la pezuña hacia arriba. 

 

CHAIRA:
Utensilio cilíndrico de acero con mango que se usa para afilar los cuchillos.  

 

INFILTRACIONES:
Líneas de grasa entre la masa muscular que le confieren jugosidad al jamón y donde, en el caso de los de calidad bellota, se van acumulando los compuestos volátiles de la bellota, durante la maduración. Esto determinará finalmente su aroma y sabor.  

 

JAMONERO:
Estructura fija o con sistema giratorio, que sirve como base en la que se coloca  y  fija la pata de jamón  facilitando así su corte.

 

CUCHILLO JAMONERO:
Cuchillo de hoja estrecha, muy alargada y flexible, que permite el corte del jamón en finísimas lonchas.

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Terminos sobre el jamon iberico